Ethics

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

ARMG Publishing follows the principles of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). We expect all prospective authors to read and understand our Ethics Policy before submitting manuscripts to our journals. For more information, please visit the COPE web-site: http://publicationethics.org.

  • Ethical responsibilities of authors
  • Ethical responsibilities of editors/reviewers

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Editors are accountable for the quality of the articles published in their journals. However, the ethical responsibility for the contents of every published article remains with the author(s) who should adhere to the ethical principles of research while conducting studies and compiling articles and reports.

  • Authors guarantee that their manuscript is original, does not infringe the intellectual property rights of anyone, and it has neither been previously published nor is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

  • Manuscripts must be free from any form of plagiarism, which is considered to be highly unethical and unprofessional and is likely to bring the author and the publisher into disrepute. Kindly note that if suspicion is raised about the originality of the manuscript (unattributed to source), the Editorial Board may check the manuscript for plagiarism. Manuscripts will be rejected by the Editorial Board if they contain any form of plagiarism – intentional and/or unintentional plagiarism. Self-plagiarism is also unacceptable.

  • Submission of an article implies all authors approve its publication and that all authors have participated in the research and/or article preparation process. All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, the objectivity of their work. Authors are further requested to identify any funding sources that facilitated the research or article writing process.

  • Provide accurate contact details for a designated corresponding author, who shall be deemed by the publisher and editor as fully responsible for the authorship of the paper and all communications concerning the ethical status and originality of the paper. This includes any queries or investigations that may arise, pre- or post-publication.

  • Identify any third party material that they intend to include in their article, and obtain written permission for re-use in each instance from the relevant copyright holders. Such permissions should be submitted once the manuscript is accepted, or requires small changes to be accepted. For further guidance on seeking permission to use 3rd party material please see the Rights and Permissions section.

  • Expect the editor to scan submissions using plagiarism detection software to check a paperʼs originality before sending out for review.

  • Fully correspond and comply with the editor and publisher in any requests for source data, proof of authorship or originality in a timely manner, providing reasonable explanation for discrepancies or failures to disclose vital information.

  • Expect transparency, efficiency and respect from the publisher and the editor during the submissions process.

  • Remain in good communication with both the publisher and the editor.

  • Remain in good communication with the editor(s), the publisher and any co-authors.

Compliance with ethical standards

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.

Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” before the References when submitting a paper:

  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest.

  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animal

  • Informed consent.

Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the Instructions for Authors carefully.

The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.

The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an author or his sponsor have a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations, or with the people working with them, that could influence your research.

Full disclosure is required when you submit your paper to a journal. The editor may decide not to publish your article on the basis of any declared conflict. The conflict of interest can be declared on your cover letter.

Also examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

  1. The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission.

  2. The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors.

  3. Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted.

Research involving Human Participants and/or Animal

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association with all current revisions and amendments. The article manuscript should describe the manner in which informed consent was obtained from any human subjects. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Informed consent

All authors are required to follow the requirements on informed consent from patients and study participants. Please confirm that any participant in any research or experiment described in your article has given written consent to the inclusion of material pertaining to themselves, that they acknowledge that they cannot be identified via the paper and that you have fully anonymized them.

Authors’ complaints

Authors are able to formulate complaints against publishers, editors, peer-reviewers and other members of the editorial staff of journals if they are aware of editorial misconduct, copyright infringement, publishing without consent, or any other breach. Complaints must first be addressed directly to the publisher or editor-in-chief of the corresponding journal.

Scientific misconduct and copyright

Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. The main types of research misconduct are the following: fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism.

Fabrication is making up results and recording or reporting them. A more minor form of fabrication is where references are included to give arguments the appearance of widespread acceptance, but are actually fake, and/or do not support the argument.

Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.

Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. One form is the appropriation of the ideas and results of others, and publishing as to make it appear the author had performed all the work under which the data was obtained. A subset is citation plagiarism – willful or negligent failure to appropriately credit other or prior discoverers, so as to give an improper impression of priority.

Plagiarism-fabrication – the act of taking an unrelated figure from an unrelated publication and reproducing it exactly in a new publication.

Self-plagiarism – or multiple publication of the same content with different titles and/or in different journals is sometimes also considered misconduct.

Copyright

Articles submitted to the journal should not have been published before in their current or substantially similar form, or be under consideration for publication with another journal. Authors submitting articles for publication warrant that the work is not an infringement of any existing copyright and will indemnify the publisher against any breach of such warranty. For ease of dissemination and to ensure proper policing of use, papers and contributions become the legal copyright of the publisher unless otherwise agreed.

ARMG Publishing takes issues of sscientific misconduct, copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We are focused on the rights protection of our authors. Also we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles will be checked with duplication-checking software by using Unplug.

Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

The Editorial Board is an important element in the running of a journal. Finding the right person or people for a particular journal can be challenging and time-consuming but it can significantly enhance the efficiency of the editorial process. The members of Editorial Board are qualified experts in their fields and experts in a variety of topics published in the journal. Members of the Editorial Board participate in journal activities, including peer review and soliciting articles. They adhere to the Code of Conduct for Journal Editors.

All Members are invited to Editorial Board by an Invitation letter.

Editors of scientific journals have responsibilities toward the authors who provide the content of the journals, the peer reviewers who comment on the suitability of manuscripts for publication, the journal’s readers and the scientific community, the owners/publishers of the journals, and the public as a whole.

Editors should adhere to fair play principles. They evaluate submitted manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit (importance, originality, study’s validity, clarity) and its relevance to the journal’s scope, without regard to the authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic origin, citizenship, religious belief, political philosophy or institutional affiliation.

Editors should:

  • maintain and promote consistent ethical policies for their journals

  • ensure the confidentiality of the review process

  • work with authors, reviewers, and Editorial Board members to ensure they are sufficiently advised regarding their journals’ ethics and publishing policies and that the journal’s guidance on ethical matters is fair, unbiased, and timely

Responsibilities of editor towards authors:

  • provide guidelines to authors for preparing and submitting manuscripts

  • provide a clear statement of the Journal’s policies on authorship criteria

  • establish a system for effective and rapid peer review

  • be transparent about real or apparent competing interests

  • treat all authors with fairness, courtesy, objectivity, honesty, and transparency

  • ensure that decisions are made without bias, and that any conflicts of interest are clearly stated (if not avoided)

  • respect the intellectual property rights of authors

  • ensure timely publication of accepted manuscripts

  • clearly communicate all other editorial policies and standards

Responsibilities of editor towards reviewers:

  • appoint papers that meet the reviewers’ domain of interest and expertise

  • in case of rejection the invitation, accept it politely and be hopeful of work together in the time coming

  • provide adequate guidance for the reviewers

  • fix reviewers an appropriate time to complete their reviews

  • set a maximum number of times for review (3 times a year)

  • respect the opinions of reviewers and look for ways of rewarding reviewers to the journal

Responsibilities to readers include the following:

  • attract the best articles that will be of interest to readers

  • ensure that the journal provides information in the correct format for its intended audience (print, online, etc.)

  • avoid publishing fraudulent materials and conflict of interest or other ethical problems within the editorial team and ensure that its reviewing and acceptance system is unbiased

  • that the journal is published on time, according to its stated schedule

  • guarantee access to the published information

Editors should establish a regular communication with the publisher and report any legal or ethical problems to him. The composition of the Editorial Board is reviewed twice a year (in January and in June). We get the responsiblisities and duties across to the members and keep them updated on new policies and developments. opinions and suggestions from the Editorial Board are highly evaluated and respected.

The ethical guidelines for reviewers provide standards which all peer reviewers should follow during the peer-review process.

Reviewers must:

  • maintain the confidentiality of the review process

  • immediately alert their journal editor of any real or potential competing interest that could affect the impartiality of their reviewing and decline to review where appropriate

  • conduct themselves fairly and impartially

  • agree to review a paper for which he/she has the subject expertise or if reviewer feels he/she is not competent to review a particular manuscript, he should inform about this fact the editor immediately

  • not use information from the manuscript for their own benefit or that of other bodies before they are published

  • make known any competing or conflict of interest, be it personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political or religious

  • comment on evidences of plagiarism, duplicate submission, unethical research design or excessive fragmentation of results to achieve multiple publications of manuscript

  • be kept anonymous throughout the review process, unless they have authorized disclosure

  • not review a manuscript of an author with whom he/she has a personal or professional relationship

Сonflicts of interest of editors and reviewers

Reviewers

Reviewers are requested to inform the editor of any conflicts of interest in reviewing a manuscript. Such conflicts of interest can occur if the reviewer is asked to referee a paper written by a colleague of the same organization, former or current student, former advisor, or closely-related person. Another type of conflict occurs, for example, when the reviewer is a direct competitor of the author of the paper for a grant. If the conflict is severe, the reviewer should recuse himself/herself.

Editors and Managing Editors

Managing Editors submit to the Journal Office, and the Editor-in-Chief to the corresponding journal, an annual disclosure statement of their financial and other relationships that could lead to conflicts of interest. These statements are updated during the course of a year if there are changes to the list of relationships. Managing Editors recuse themselves from handling a manuscript if they have or might have a conflict of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies or (in some cases) institutions connected to the manuscript. In each Editorial Office, there is a systematic plan for handling manuscripts submitted by Managing Editors for that journal.