Publication ethics policy and Malpractice Statement

Our team follows world-recognised high standards of scholarly publishing. In our Code of Conduct we use the recommendations provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics. Being a publisher, we use such guidelines as Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing and Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers. Our editors use Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS

Editorial Board of the journal “Business Ethics and Leadership” follow the principles of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and expect all potential authors to read and understand the Ethics Policy before submitting manuscripts to the journals. For more information, please visit the COPE web-site: http://publicationethics.org.

Editorial Board of the journal “Business Ethics and Leadership” reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the guidelines indicated below.

The authors (co-authors) are responsible for inaccurate information or failure to comply with the following provisions.

Authorship and contributorship

We consider the author (co-author) of a research article as it is done by СОРЕ, that is the person who is the creator or originator of an idea (e.g., the author of the theory of relativity) or the individual or individuals who develop and bring to fruition the product that disseminates intellectual or creative works. The status of the article writer means that this person performed the research and did not infringe the copyright and other persons’ rights.

When defining authors and authorship, we also take into account and focus on Authorship and Authorship Responsibilities proposed by the Council of Science Editors (CSE) and Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors, determined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

We structure our relationship with the authors on trust and mutual respect. This means that the author, before sending an manuscript to the journal, has read and accepted the publication ethics principles, the “Publishing policies” and “Editorial policies”, as well as the article publication terms. This means, among other things, that the authors present the results of a truly original research in their article. This means that the authors do not borrow other people’s ideas and texts in the course of the article preparation, do not send their article to several journals simultaneously, do not use the scientific potential of the journal team and reviewers to improve the article for the purpose of its subsequent sending to another journal. It also means that the authors studied the issue of possible conflicts of interest availability and made sure that they were absent.

We support and adopt 4 ICMJE authorship criteria:

  • “Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged”. The co-author must have an idea of all the work content, and not be responsible only for the part that he performed directly. Individuals who have not contributed significantly to the scientific results and the article preparation may be mentioned at the end of the article; the authors may express their gratitude with reference to how these persons contributed to this scientific work emergence.

We kindly hope that when you send an article to the editors of our journals, all those who have really contributed to its preparation will be taken into account and there will be no persons unrelated to its scientific content. We also hope that there will be no persons among the article writers who would like to claim authorship using authority over the true authors, who financed the results generation or sponsored АРС payment, who promised to include the true authors in their future article or made this earlier and claim now to compensation. If the results presented in the article were received with the someone’s financial support, then the authors should disclose funding sources directly by pointing them at the end of the article.

If the article has several authors, then they determine in dependently the corresponding author (they specify this in the Cover Letter who corresponds with the journal’s editors and controls for the article processing. It is the corresponding author who, on behalf of the whole team, announces certain decisions on the article (for example, a substantiated disagreement with the reviewers or the article recall). In order to avoid misunderstanding between the authors themselves or between the editorial staff and the authors, we send copies of the letters to all co-authors when maintaining correspondence to the corresponding author.

If, after the first article submission, changes are made in the composition of the coauthors’ team, then the persons who are excluded from the composition of the article writers’ team should send their consent to this to the journal staff. After this, a new Cover Letter will be issued and submitted to the editors with the signatures of all the co-authors.

If the article content (the research complexity and the scientific results obtained) is poorly correlated with the number of co-authors, the editorial staff may request information from the author’s team regarding the contribution of each of the co-authors to the research and the article preparation. Following the analysis of this information, co-authors may be offered to reduce their number and to mention the contribution of exempted persons in the text of the article.

Structure of the Paper and Manuscript Submission Guidelines, in the appropriate journal, recommends how to correctly specify the authors in the article.

Contributorship is the supporting process of article writers in obtaining scientific results. This concept is fully applicable to research articles and very rarely to articles of theoretical or observational nature. Contributorship may take various forms. For example, help or direct participation in a survey or scientific experiment. Participating individuals or institutions must be listed at the end of the article.

In all aspects of authorship and contributorship, we follow the СОРЕ principles and recommendations.

Integrity

Editorial Board of the journal “Business Ethics and Leadership” seek to protect the reputation of the journals against abuses and scientific misconduct.

Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research.

The main types of research misconduct are the following: fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism.

Fabrication is making up results and recording or reporting them. A more minor form of fabrication are references included in the text, which are actually fake.

Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.

Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. One form is the appropriation of the ideas and results of others, and publishing as to make it appear the author had performed all the work under which the data was obtained.

Plagiarism-fabrication – the act of taking an unrelated figure from an unrelated publication and reproducing it exactly in a new publication.

Self-plagiarism – or multiple publication of the same content with different titles and/or in different journals.

Manuscripts should not contain plagiarism. The Editorial Board will reject the manuscripts if they contain any form of plagiarism – willful and/or negligent plagiarism. Self-plagiarism is also unacceptable.

The presence of plagiarism in the article testifies the unethical and unprofessional behavior of the author (co-authors) and is likely to undermine the reputation of the author (co-authors) and the publisher.

Before sending the article to the review, it will be checked for originality with duplication-checking software by using Unicheck and StrikePlagiarism.
Where the article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, the Editorial Board reserves the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s (co-authors’) institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

Objectivity and transparency

In order to ensure the objectivity and transparency of the research in accordance with the accepted principles of ethical and professional behavior, authors should (if applicable) indicate in a separate section of the article entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” information on:

  • funding sources contributing to the research;
  • potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial);
  • informed consent of research and experiments participants (if the article contains results of research with the human participation);
  • statements about ensuring proper conditions for handling animals during experiments, if the animal participated in the study.

A conflict of interest may arise in the following cases:

  • the author or his sponsor have financial, commercial, legal or professional relations with other organizations or with people who work with them, which may affect the research;
  • the reviewer has information about the authorship of the article;
  • the reviewer has recently collaborated with the author (co-author);
  • the reviewer works in the same institution as any of the authors (co-authors);
  • other.

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors (co-authors) should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association with all current revisions and amendments.

When reporting experiments on animals, authors (co-authors) should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

All authors (co-authors) are required to follow the requirements on informed consent from study participants. They must confirm that any participant in any research or experiment described in their article has given written consent to the inclusion of material pertaining to themselves, that they acknowledge that they cannot be identified via the paper and that you have fully anonymized them. The article should describe the way in which the informed consent was obtained.

The authors (co-authors) can count on transparency and respect from the pub-lisher and the editor while preparing the article for publication.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EDITORS-IN-CHIEF, SECTION EDITORS AND THE MEMBERS OF EDITORIAL BOARDS

The members of Editorial Board are qualified experts in their fields and experts in a variety of topics published in the journal. All members of the Board occupy the positions in educational and research institutions.

They adhere to the Code of Conduct for Journal Editors.

All Members are invited to Editorial Board by an Invitation letter.

Editor-in-chief and the members of editorial boards of scientific journals have responsibilities toward the authors who provide the content of the journals, the peer reviewers who comment on the suitability of manuscripts for publication, the journal’s readers and the scientific community, the owners/publishers of the journals, and the public as a whole.

Editor-in-Chief gets the responsibilities and duties across to the members of Editorial Board and keeps them updated on changes and developments concerning the process of publishing journals.

Editor-in-Chief should respect the opinions and suggestions from the Editorial Board regarding the improvement of the editorial policy of journals.

Guest editors play a vital role in ensuring the quality of special content publications, such as Special Issues. Guest editors overlook the process, from proposal to publication.

The Editorial Board is reviewed every two years, which means exclusion of inactive members and addition of the new ones.

We appreciate applications from the editorial candidates. To submit an application, please send an e-mail to a Managing Editor of the selected journal and attach a file with your CV (containing the current place of work, occupation, education, the scope of your scientific interest, types of activity, list of publications, list of the journals in which you occupy the positions of an editor or a reviewer, e-mail for contact and a link to personal page at you university).

Editor-in-Chief and the members of Editorial Board should:

  • evaluate submitted manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit (importance, originality, study’s validity, clarity) and its relevance to the journal’s scope, without regard to the authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic origin, citizenship, religious belief, political philosophy or institutional affiliation;
  • maintain and promote consistent ethical policies for their journals;
  • ensure the confidentiality of the review process;
  • work with authors, reviewers, and Editorial Board members to ensure they are sufficiently advised regarding their journals’ ethics and publishing policies;
  • promote compliance with the principles of fairness, impartiality and timeliness in the implementation of the publishing policy of journals;
  • executive (technical) editors should refuse to process the manuscript if they have or may have a conflict of interest as a result of competitive, joint or other relationships or links to any of the authors, companies or (in some cases) institutions, associated with the manuscript.

Responsibilities of Editor-in-Chief and the members of Editorial Board of scientific journals towards authors:

  • provide guidelines to authors for preparing and submitting manuscripts;
  • provide a clear statement of the Journal’s policies on authorship criteria;
  • establish a system for effective and rapid peer review;
  • be transparent about real or apparent competing interests, ensure that any conflicts of interest are clearly stated (if not avoided);
  • treat all authors with fairness, courtesy, objectivity, honesty, and transparency;
  • respect the intellectual property rights of authors;
  • ensure timely publication of accepted manuscripts
    timely introduce the authors to all editorial standards and changes in the editorial policy.

Responsibilities of Editor-in-Chief and the members of Editorial Board of scientific journals towards reviewers:

  • appoint papers that meet the reviewers’ domain of interest and expertise;
  • in case of rejection the invitation, accept it politely and be hopeful of work together in the time coming;
  • provide adequate guidance for the reviewers
  • fix reviewers an appropriate time to conduct an inspection of materials sent and complete their reviews;
  • set a maximum number of times for review (3 times a year);
  • respect the opinions of reviewers.

Responsibilities of Editor-in-Chief and the members of Editorial Board of scientific journals towards to readers:

  • attract the best articles of high scientific level that will be of interest to readers;
  • ensure that the journal provides information in the correct format for its intended audience (print, online, etc.);
  • avoid publishing fraudulent materials and conflict of interest or other ethical problems within the editorial team;
  • ensure that its reviewing and acceptance system is unbiased;
  • that the journal is published on time, according to its stated schedule;
  • guarantee access to the published information;
  • establish a regular communication with the publisher and report any legal or ethical problems to him.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF REVIEWERS

Members of the Editorial Board, who are qualified experts in a variety of topics published in the journal or external reviewers with whom the journal cooperates, can be involved in the articles review.

The reviewers should:

  • be kept anonymous throughout the review process, unless they have authorized disclosure;
  • immediately inform the Editor-in-Chief any competing or conflict of interest (personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political or religious) that could affect the impartiality of their reviewing and decline to review where appropriate. Such conflicts of interest can occur if the reviewer is asked to referee a paper written by a colleague of the same organization, former or current student, former advisor, or closely-related person. Another type of conflict occurs, for example, when the reviewer is a direct competitor of the author of the paper for a grant. If the conflict is severe, the reviewer should refuse to review a manuscript;
  • conduct themselves fairly and impartially in the process of review;
  • agree to review a paper for which he/she has the subject expertise or if reviewer feels he/she is not competent to review a particular manuscript, he should inform about this fact the Editor-in-Chief immediately;
  • not use information from the manuscript for their own benefit or that of other bodies before they are published;
  • comment on evidences of plagiarism, duplicate submission, unethical research design or excessive fragmentation of results to achieve multiple publications of manuscript.

Conflict-of-Interest Statement for publications

Editors, authors, and peer reviewers should disclose interests that might appear to affect their ability to present or review work objectively. These might include relevant financial interests (for example, patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, or speaker’s fees), or personal, political, or religious interests.

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors definition of conflicts of interest is as follows:

“A conflict of interest exists when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients’ welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain). Perceptions of conflict of interest are as important as actual conflicts of interest.”

Strict policies preventing people with conflicts of interest from publishing might encourage authors to conceal relevant interests, and might therefore be counterproductive.

  • Journal editors, board members, and staff who are involved with decisions about publication should declare their interests. Journals should consider publishing these on their website and updating them as required, as well as disclosing how conflicts of interest were managed for specific papers.

  • Editors should clearly explain what should be disclosed, including the period that these statements should cover (for example, 3 years). Editors should ask authors to describe relevant funding, including the purpose of the funding (for example, travel grant and speaker’s fees), and to describe relevant patents, stocks, and shares that they own.

  • Editors should publish authors’ conflicts of interest whenever they are relevant, or a statement of their absence. If there is doubt, editors should opt in favor of greater disclosure.

  • If authors state that there are no conflicts of interest, editors should publish a confirmation to this effect.

  • Editors should manage peer reviewers’ conflicts of interest. An invitation to review a manuscript should be accompanied by a request for the reviewer to reveal any potential conflicts of interest and a request for the peer reviewer to disqualify or recuse themselves when these are relevant.

  • When editors, members of editorial boards, and other editorial staff are presented with papers where their own interests may be perceived to impair their ability to make an unbiased editorial decision, they should withdraw from discussions, deputize decisions, or suggest that authors seek publication in a different journal.

  • If there is a conflict of interest before the article publication, whether it has been attested by an author, a reviewer, Editorial Board members, editors, or the Managing Editor or the staff of the journal, or if there has been an information leak, then a conflict of interests statement should be published in the article; in addition, the editor may request and publish related documents so that the reader has complete information and can judge for himself the possibility and nature of the impact of the conflict of interest on the published results.

Editors and journal staff as authors

Editors or board members should not be involved in editorial decisions about their own scholarly work. Journals should establish and publish mechanisms and clearly defined policies for handling submissions from editors, members of their editorial boards, and employees. We recommend that:

  • Editors and editorial team members are excluded from publication decisions when they are authors or have contributed to a manuscript.

  • A short statement may be useful for any published article that lists editors or board members as authors to explain the process used to make the editorial decision.

Some journals will not consider original research papers from editors or employees of the journal. Others have procedures in place for ensuring fair peer review.

FOUNDER AND PUBLISHER RELATIONS

The Publisher and the Founder are the same organizations; the relations do not need regulation.