, Master of Science in International Business, University of Oulu, Finland
The paper analyses the culture’s conceptual terrain from different scholarly perspectives, and how it has led to the emergence of different conceptualization of cultural intelligence. As such, cultural intelligence is described from the perspective of Earley et al.’s Thomas et al.’s and Plum’s and then explained how Plum’s conceptualization is a better construct to apply in the context of this paper and how it relates to the aims and objectives of this paper. The main purpose of the research is to see how cultural integration is enacted and carried out by foreign employees working in a firm that has completely different cultures from their own: the aim is to also see what factors or determinants form cultural intelligence.
The research methodology consists of conducting an open-ended interview with six employees who were working in a finish firm and they were asked questions based on how did they achieve their integration and went about their daily interactions and abstract situations. For analysis, Braun and Clarke’ (2006) steps of thematic analysis were adopted for studying and analyzing the interviewed transcripts as their method of analyzing is based at constructing a narrative story out of the data.
The research proved what was assumed theoretically that culture is an evolving and negotiated social reality constructed by the social agents. The analysis part as result revealed that the daily interaction consists of the process of meaning-making complexities that lead to the evolvement of negotiated socio-cultural reality what we call cultural-integration on the part of employees.
As the world is going through a transformation in the midst of changes brought upon the unprecedented immigration and seamless borders, cross cultural interactions and cultural adaptability has become an extremely important issue. The results of this study have thus important implications for mangers and business leaders to take culture and integration as an evolving concept and as a journey as they try to integrate foreign employees or sending people abroad on expatriate mission.
Keywords: cultural intelligence, cultural integration, cross-cultural adjustment, self-integration.
JEL Classification: M14.
Cite as: Shafi, S. (2018). Employees’ Self-Cultural Integration Through Cultural Intelligence: A Case Of Finnish Firm. SocioEconomic Challenges, 4(2), 32-43. DOI: http://doi.org/10.21272/sec.2(4).32-43.2018
- Cox, T. (1994). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
- Galbraith, J. R. (2000). Designing the global corporation. Jossey-Bass.
- Kirchmeyer, C., & McLellan, J. (1991). Capitalizing on ethnic diversity: An approach to managing the diverse workgroups of the 1990s. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 8(2), 72-79.
- Kirkman, B. L., & Shapiro, D. L. (2005). The impact of cultural value diversity on multicultural team performance. In Managing multinational teams: Global perspectives, 33-67. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- Tung, R. L. (1993). Managing cross‐national and intra‐national diversity. Human Resource Management, 32(4), 461-477.
- Hancock, P., & Tyler, M. (2007). Un/doing gender and the aesthetics of organizational performance. Gender, Work & Organization, 14(6), 512-533.
- Joshi, A., Labianca, G., & Caligiuri, P. M. (2002). Getting along long distance: Understanding conflict in a multinational team through network analysis. Journal of World Business, 37(4), 277-284.
- Marquardt, M. J., & Horvath, L. (2001). Global teams: How top multinationals span boundaries and cultures with high-speed teamwork. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
- Harvey, M., & Novicevic, M. M. (2001). Selecting expatriates for increasingly complex global assignments. Career Development International, 6(2), 69-87.
- Søderberg, A. M., & Holden, N. (2002). Rethinking cross cultural management in a globalizing business world. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 2(1), 103-121.
- Morgan, G., Gregory, F., & Roach, C. (1997). Images of organization.
- Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture, 45(2), p. 109. American Psychological Association.
- Kleppestø, S. (1993). Kultur och identitet vid företagsuppköp och fusioner. Nerenius & Santérus förlag.
- Geertz, G. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
- Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., & Ng, K. Y. (2004, August). The measurement of cultural intelligence. Academy of Management Meetings Symposium on Cultural Intelligence in the 21st Century, New Orleans, LA.
- Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C. (2013). Assessing cross-cultural competence: A review of available tests. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 44(6), 849-873.
- Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.
- Thomas, D. C. (2006). Domain and development of cultural intelligence: The importance of mindfulness. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 78-99.
- Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2006). Motivational cultural intelligence, realistic job preview, realistic living conditions preview, and cross-cultural adjustment. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 154-173.
- Plum, E. (2008) CI: Cultural Intelligence: The art of leading cultural complexity. London: Middlesex University Press.
- Byrne, D. (1971). The Attraction Paradigm, New York: Ac.
- Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad?. Organizational dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.
- Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. Sage Publications, Inc.
- Trompenaars, F. (1993) Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Culture and Diversity in Business. London: Nicholas Brealey.
- Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
- Shannon, L. M., & Begley, T. M. (2008). Antecedents of four-factor model of cultural intelligence, 41-55. ME Sharpe.
- Harrison, N. (2012). Investigating the impact of personality and early life experiences on intercultural interaction in internationalized universities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(2), 224-237.
- Alon, I., & Higgins, J. M. (2005). Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligences. Business Horizons, 48(6), 501-512.
- Jaspal, R. (2009). Language and social identity: A psychosocial approach. Psych-Talk, 64, 17-20.
- MacNab, B. R., & Worthley, R. (2012). Individual characteristics as predictors of cultural intelligence development: The relevance of self-efficacy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(1), 62-71.
- Simpson, T. W. (2012), What Is Trust? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 93: 587.
- Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of organizational Behavior, 23(3), 267-285.
- Brett, J. M. (2007). Negotiating globally: How to negotiate deals, resolve disputes, and make decisions across cultural boundaries. John Wiley & Sons.
- Riege, A. (2005). Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of knowledge management, 9(3), 18-35.